This concept is closely related to uncertainty and learning. In projects, while some may disagree, almost all failures, even catastrophic ones, are not really Black Swan events but a series of failures that alone may have a negative impact on project outcomes but combined lead to catastrophic failure. However it is surprising how often experienced project teams ignore the early warning signs and move forward into the project lifecycle despite serious problems in many areas that are black swan green pdf download to project success. This will ultimately lead to the Black Swan event materializing.
That is when it is too late to take any preventive actions. This paper will characterize the Black Swan concept in projects and describe its nature and identify organizational mechanisms that can be useful in dealing with Black Swan surprises in projects. This study is mainly based on literature study, however carries out an assessment on examples of Black Swan events in order to better clarify the concept under study. Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of IPMA WC 2015.
Changes must be reviewed before being displayed on this page. This article is about the color. Gisele Bündchen at the Fashion Rio Inverno 2006. Queen Victoria by Heinrich von Angeli. Percy Bysshe Shelley by Alfred Clint. For the same reason, black text on a white screen is the most common format used on computer screens.
There is some debate about wether black is a colour or shade, though shade has been scientifically proven. Since the Middle Ages black has been the symbolic color of solemnity and authority, and for this reason is still commonly worn by judges and magistrates. In the 14th century, it began to be worn by royalty, the clergy, judges and government officials in much of Europe. It became the color worn by English romantic poets, businessmen and statesmen in the 19th century, and a high fashion color in the 20th century. According to surveys in Europe and North America, it is the color most commonly associated with mourning, the end, secrets, magic, force, violence, evil, and elegance.
The Ancient Greeks sometimes used the same word to name different colors, if they had the same intensity. Black was one of the first colors used in art. 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. Black was one of the most important colors used by ancient Greek artists. When the pot was fired, the figures painted with the slip would turn black, against a red background. Later they reversed the process, painting the spaces between the figures with slip.
This created magnificent red figures against a glossy black background. They were the root of the English words “atrocious” and “atrocity”. Black was also the Roman color of death and mourning. Nordic pantheon, had two black ravens, Huginn and Muninn, who served as his agents, traveling the world for him, watching and listening. In the early Middle Ages, black was commonly associated with darkness and evil.
In Medieval paintings, the devil was usually depicted as having human form, but with wings and black skin or hair. In fashion, black did not have the prestige of red, the color of the nobility. A Benedictine abbot, Pierre the Venerable, accused the Cistercians of excessive pride in wearing white instead of black. Cistercians responded that black was the color of the devil, hell, “of death and sin,” while white represented “purity, innocence and all the virtues”. Black symbolized both power and secrecy in the medieval world. The emblem of the Holy Roman Empire of Germany was a black eagle. Middle Ages was an enigmatic figure, hiding his identity, usually wrapped in secrecy.
Ancient China and India, was traditionally used in the Middle Ages for writing, for the simple reason that black was the darkest color and therefore provided the greatest contrast with white paper or parchment, making it the easiest color to read. The new ink made it possible to spread ideas to a mass audience through printed books, and to popularize art through black and white engravings and prints. Black ink was used for printing books, because it provided the greatest contrast with the white paper and was the clearest and easiest color to read. In the early Middle Ages, princes, nobles and the wealthy usually wore bright colors, particularly scarlet cloaks from Italy. Black was rarely part of the wardrobe of a noble family.
It was imported from Russia and Poland and used to trim the robes and gowns of royalty. In the 14th century, the status of black began to change. First, high-quality black dyes began to arrive on the market, allowing garments of a deep, rich black. Magistrates and government officials began to wear black robes, as a sign of the importance and seriousness of their positions. Europe which prohibited the wearing of costly clothes and certain colors by anyone except members of the nobility. The wealthy bankers and merchants of northern Italy responded by changing to black robes and gowns, made with the most expensive fabrics. The change to the more austere but elegant black was quickly picked up by the kings and nobility.