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Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. Sex differences in cognitive abilities are changing and vary across nations. Some differences are found in infancy but depend on task characteristics. Fraternal-twin studies help establish the role of prenatal androgens. International data help explain the role of economic prosperity and gender equity. Modifying biological and environmental factors could maximize cognitive potential. Surprising new findings indicate that many conclusions about sex differences and similarities in cognitive abilities need to be reexamined.
Cognitive sex differences are changing, decreasing for some tasks whereas remaining stable or increasing for other tasks. Some sex differences are detected in infancy, but the data are complex and depend on task characteristics. Diverse disciplines have revolutionized our understanding of why these differences exist. For instance, fraternal-twin studies align with earlier literature to help establish the role of prenatal androgens and large international datasets help explain how cultural factors such as economic prosperity and gender equity affect females and males differently. Understanding how biological and environmental factors interact could help maximize cognitive potential and address pressing societal issues. Serbian language as their mother tongue.