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This chapter reviews the architecture and organization of computer systems in light of abstraction, naming, and layering. The systems perspective provides some new insights into the familiar concepts of software and hardware. It describes the three fundamental abstractions, a model for naming, and explains how names are used in computer systems. It discusses how a designer combines the abstractions, using names and layers, to create a typical computer system, presenting the file system as a concrete example of the use of naming and layering for the memory abstraction. Designers use layers and names in many other ways in computer systems. The chapter shows the typical organization of a computer system as three distinct layers. The bottom layer consists of hardware components, such as processors, memories, and communication links.
The middle layer consists of a collection of software modules, called the operating system, that abstracts these hardware resources into a convenient application-programming interface. The hardware layer of a typical computer is constructed of modules that directly implement low-level versions of the three fundamental abstractions. This article has not been cited. In order to provide some guidance for preventing human interface problems that could affect human performance and safety during a space mission, this chapter on human-system interface design primarily covers the design of the cockpit, from a technical and process point of view, and the related design of visual-aural alert system and crew seats. Begault and Dustin Gohmert are Government employee and their contribution is in public domain.
Motivation is also one’s direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior. A motive is what prompts the person to act in a certain way, or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior. According to Maehr and Meyer, “Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are. Motivation as a desire to perform an action is usually defined as having two parts, directional such as directed towards a positive stimulus or away from a negative one, as well as the activated “seeking phase” and consummatory “liking phase”. Furthermore, depletion or inhibition of dopamine in neurons of the nucleus accumbens decreases appetitive but not consummatory behavior. Dopamine is further implicated in motivation as administration of amphetamine increased the break point in a progressive ratio self-reinforcement schedule. Motivation can be conceived of as a cycle in which thoughts influence behaviors, behaviors drive performance, performance affects thoughts, and the cycle begins again.
Each stage of the cycle is composed of many dimensions including attitudes, beliefs, intentions, effort, and withdrawal which can all affect the motivation that an individual experiences. The natural system assumes that people have higher order needs, which contrasts with the rational theory that suggests people dislike work and only respond to rewards and punishment. Physiological needs are the lowest and most important level. These fundamental requirements include food, rest, shelter, and exercise. However, if management makes arbitrary or biased employment decisions, then an employee’s safety needs are unfulfilled. The next set of needs is social, which refers to the desire for acceptance, affiliation, reciprocal friendships and love. As such, the natural system of management assumes that close-knit work teams are productive.
Accordingly, if an employee’s social needs are unmet, then he will act disobediently. There are two types of egoistic needs, the second-highest order of needs. The first type refers to one’s self-esteem, which encompasses self-confidence, independence, achievement, competence, and knowledge. The second type of needs deals with reputation, status, recognition, and respect from colleagues. Egoistic needs are much more difficult to satisfy. The highest order of needs is for self-fulfillment, including recognition of one’s full potential, areas for self-improvement, and the opportunity for creativity. This differs from the rational system, which assumes that people prefer routine and security to creativity.
Unlike the rational management system, which assumes that humans don’t care about these higher order needs, the natural system is based on these needs as a means for motivation. To successfully manage and motivate employees, the natural system posits that being part of a group is necessary. Because of structural changes in social order, the workplace is more fluid and adaptive according to Mayo. As a result, individual employees have lost their sense of stability and security, which can be provided by a membership in a group. However, if teams continuously change within jobs, then employees feel anxious, empty, and irrational and become harder to work with. In groups, employees will self-manage and form relevant customs, duties, and traditions.
Humans are not motivated solely by wage incentives. Unlike the rational theory of motivation, people are not driven toward economic interests under the natural system. For instance, the straight piecework system pays employees based on each unit of their output. Based on studies such as the Bank Wiring Observation Room, using a piece rate incentive system does not lead to higher production. Employees actually set upper limits on each person’s daily output.
Therefore, as opposed to the rational system that depends on economic rewards and punishments, the natural system of management assumes that humans are also motivated by non-economic factors. Employees seek autonomy and responsibility in their work, contrary to assumptions of the rational theory of management. Because supervisors have direct authority over employees, they must ensure that the employee’s actions are in line with the standards of efficient conduct. Accordingly, the natural management system assumes that employees prefer autonomy and responsibility on the job and dislike arbitrary rules and overwhelming supervision. Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1970s. Intrinsic motivation is the self-desire to seek out new things and new challenges, to analyze one’s capacity, to observe and to gain knowledge. It is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for consideration.
The phenomenon of intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged within experimental studies of animal behavior. Intrinsic motivation is a natural motivational tendency and is a critical element in cognitive, social, and physical development. In short, the cause of the behavior must be internal, known as internal local of causality, and the individual who engages in the behavior must perceive that the task increases their competence. Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities. An example of intrinsic motivation is when an employee becomes an IT professional because he or she wants to learn about how computer users interact with computer networks. The employee has the intrinsic motivation to gain more knowledge.
Not only can intrinsic motivation be used in a personal setting, but it can also be implemented and utilized in a social environment. Instead of attaining mature desires, such as those presented above via internet which can be attained on one’s own, intrinsic motivation can be used to assist extrinsic motivation to attain a goal. To get the toy, he must first communicate to his therapist that he wants it. Communicating with the therapist is the first, slightly more challenging goal that stands in the way of achieving his larger goal of playing with the train. Intrinsic motivation can be long-lasting and self-sustaining. Efforts to build this kind of motivation are also typically efforts at promoting student learning.