Like the Spanish Enlightenment, the Spanish Bourbon monarchs were chapter 21.1 spain’s empire and european absolutism pdf with Spain’s Catholic identity. From 1777 to 1816, the Spanish crown funded scientific expeditions to gather information about the potential botanical wealth of the empire. Spanish America, the Spanish crown accorded him not only permission, but the instructions to crown officials to aid him.
Spanish scholars sought to understand the decline of the Spanish empire from its earlier glory days, with the aim of reclaiming its former prestige. In Spanish America, the Enlightenment also had an impact in the intellectual and scientific sphere, with elite American-born Spanish men involved in these projects. The Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian peninsula was enormously destabilizing for Spain and the Spanish overseas empire. The French Bourbons had a strong claim on the Spanish throne following the 1700 death of the last Hapsburg monarch, Charles II, who died without an heir.