Doctor and Bachelors of Arts and Medicine graduate. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members. Today this is claimed as the origin of “academic freedom”. 900th anniversary of Bologna’disciplinary problems in higher education of ethiopia pdf foundation.
859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics. Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers’ agenda.
Norman Daniel, however, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have recently drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context. It is possible, however, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries. 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities. Europe for those defending the right of incipient nations against empire and church.
Lay students arrived in the city from many lands entering into a contract to gain this knowledge, organising themselves into ‘Nationes’, divided between that of the Cismontanes and that of the Ultramontanes. All over Europe rulers and city governments began to create universities to satisfy a European thirst for knowledge, and the belief that society would benefit from the scholarly expertise generated from these institutions. Princes and leaders of city governments perceived the potential benefits of having a scholarly expertise develop with the ability to address difficult problems and achieve desired ends. The emergence of humanism was essential to this understanding of the possible utility of universities as well as the revival of interest in knowledge gained from ancient Greek texts.