Somalia experienced the worst famine of the twenty-first century in 2011. People’s ability to cope with the famine depended famine in far go pdf diversification, mobility and flexibility.
People’s social connections were instrumental in how well they coped with the famine. Social networks functioned differently in famine—and were not always able to sustain members. Understanding social connectedness will improve famine prevention and response. 12, Somalia experienced the worst famine of the twenty- first century.
This paper focuses on the internal, Somali response to the famine. Themes of diversification, mobility and flexibility are all important to understanding how people coped with the famine, but this paper focuses on the factor that seemed to determine whether and how well people survived the famine: social connectedness, the extent of the social networks of affected populations, and the ability of these networks to mobilize resources. These factors ultimately determined how well people coped with the famine. The nature of reciprocity, the resources available within people’s networks, and the collective risks and hazards faced within networks, all determined people’s individual and household outcomes in the famine and are related to the social structures and social hierarchies within Somali society. This paper addresses several questions: How did Somali communities and households cope with the famine of 2011 in the absence of any state-led response—and a significant delay in a major international response? What can be learned from these practices to improve our understanding of famine, and of mitigation, response and building resilience to future crises? Skibbereen by James Mahony, 1847.
The famine and its effects permanently changed the island’s demographic, political, and cultural landscape. Ireland and among Irish emigrants in the United States and elsewhere. January 1801, Ireland had been part of the United Kingdom. Irish representatives were landowners or the sons of landowners. Ireland was on the verge of starvation, her population rapidly increasing, three-quarters of her labourers unemployed, housing conditions appalling and the standard of living unbelievably low”. Irish Catholics to again sit in parliament. During the 18th century, the “middleman system” for managing landed property was introduced.
Rent collection was left in the hands of the landlords’ agents, or middlemen. This assured the landlord of a regular income, and relieved them of direct responsibility, while leaving tenants open to exploitation by the middlemen. In 1843, the British Government considered that the land question in Ireland was the root cause of disaffection in the country. The Commissioners concluded they could not “forbear expressing our strong sense of the patient endurance which the labouring classes have exhibited under sufferings greater, we believe, than the people of any other country in Europe have to sustain”. The Commission stated that bad relations between landlord and tenant were principally responsible. 6,000,000 was remitted out of Ireland in 1842. The ability of middlemen was measured by the rent income they could contrive to extract from tenants.