Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. 62×39 – Federal ammunition ballistics chart pdf – 1. Lateral view of a steel-cased 7.
It is commonly believed that the 7. 39mm cartridge was influenced by a variety of foreign developments, including the German STG-44, though this has been debated. The cartridge remained the Soviet standard until the 1970s. In the 21st century the 7. 39mm remains a common service rifle chambering, including for newly developed rifles.
About 314 cartridge designs were considered theoretically, before narrowing the selection down to 8 models that were physically constructed and tested. This cartridge actually had a case length of 41 mm, so it is sometimes referred to as the 7. The bullet it contained was 22. 8 mm long and had a core made entirely of lead. This bullet has a somewhat stubbier appearance than later 7. 39 bullets, with its maximal radius being attained after only 13. 01 mm from its tip, and it was lacking a boat tail.
After some further refinements, a pilot production series of this cartridge began in March 1944. After more detailed testing results became available, starting in 1944 the cartridge was tweaked in order to improve its accuracy and penetration. However, further testing showed that the boat tail improved accuracy even at shorter ranges, where the bullet was still supersonic. In order to maintain the overall mass of the bullet, after adding the boat tail, the ogival head section of the bullet was lengthened as well, making the bullet more streamlined overall. The maximum radius was now attained at some 15.
95 mm from the tip and the overall length of the bullet increased to 26. In order to preserve the total length of the cartridge, the case sleeve was shortened to 38. Additionally, the new bullet had a core made of low-carbon steel wrapped in lead. This bullet was given the acronym “7. 39 cartridge equipped with the PS bullet finally overcame all objections of the GAU in mid-1947, when it was ordered into series production, and given the index 57-N-231S.
Soviets may have had access to the works of GECO and Vollmer during 1940, when Hitler allowed a large number of Soviet engineers to tour various German armament factories. Soviet M43 round was so different that it was possible to dismiss the idea that it was a copy of any German round in existence at the time. In the early 1960s, a “lacquered” steel case was introduced, and the new cartridge was initially given the designation 57-N-231SL. In an effort to simplify terminology, sometime thereafter the 57-N-231 designation was recycled to denote all steel-core 7. 39 Soviet ammunition, irrespective of case build.
In the mid 1950s, Elizarov’s team, now working at NII-61, developed a special subsonic bullet for the 7. It was adopted for service in 1962, and given the army designation “7. PS bullet, and also had a different, non-layered core structure. The subsonic bullet also has a larger maximum diameter of 7. 94 mm compared to all other 7.
39 bullets that peak at 7. For recognition, this ammo typically has the bullet tips painted black with green band underneath. This change improved their penetration by 1. It is not possible to externally distinguish these bullets from the earlier, softer PS ones except by year of fabrication. At about the same time, tool steel was adopted for a normal velocity 7. Called BP, this bullet was developed in the 1980s and 1990s.
It was officially adopted for Russian service in 2002 under the service name “7. 62 BP”, and with the GRAU designation 7N23. The BP cartridge has the tip of its bullet painted black. PS bullet, but has the same mass of 7. At the same 1943 meeting that decided the development new cartridge, the Soviet planners decided that a whole range of new small arms should use it, including a semi-automatic carbine, a fully automatic rifle, and a light machine gun. Design contests for these new weapons began in earnest in 1944.