Financial management for pharmacists a decision making approach pdf

However, health care planning has been described as often evolutionary rather than revolutionary. According to WHO, healthcare systems’ goals are good health for the citizens, responsiveness to the expectations of the population, and fair means of funding operations. In financial management for pharmacists a decision making approach pdf publications, for example, both expressions are used interchangeably.

A health system consists of all organizations, people and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health. This includes efforts to influence determinants of health as well as more direct health-improving activities. A health system is therefore more than the pyramid of publicly owned facilities that deliver personal health services. It includes inter-sectoral action by health staff, for example, encouraging the ministry of education to promote female education, a well known determinant of better health.

Healthcare providers are institutions or individuals providing healthcare services. Most countries’ systems feature a mix of all five models. The study also found no relationship between financing and cost control. In each case premiums or taxes protect the insured from high or unexpected health care expenses. The benefit is typically administered by a government agency, a non-profit health fund or a corporation operating seeking to make a profit. Many government schemes also have co-payment schemes but exclusions are rare because of political pressure. The larger insurance schemes may also negotiate fees with providers.

Many forms of social insurance schemes control their costs by using the bargaining power of their community they represent to control costs in the health care delivery system. Essentially the more wealthy pay proportionately more into the scheme to cover the needs of the relatively poor who therefore contribute proportionately less. AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria in 94 countries. There are three ways to pay medical practitioners: fee for service, capitation, and salary. There has been growing interest in blending elements of these systems. GPs can charge extra fees on top of standardized patient reimbursement rates. GPs are paid for each patient on their “list”, usually with adjustments for factors such as age and gender.

Capitation payments have become more frequent in “managed care” environments in the United States. According to OECD, “Capitation systems allow funders to control the overall level of primary health expenditures, and the allocation of funding among GPs is determined by patient registrations. However, under this approach, GPs may register too many patients and under-serve them, select the better risks and refer on patients who could have been treated by the GP directly. Freedom of consumer choice over doctors, coupled with the principle of “money following the patient” may moderate some of these risks. Aside from selection, these problems are likely to be less marked than under salary-type arrangements.