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Many manufacturing firms began their global expansion as exporters and only later switched to another mode for serving a foreign market. Methods of export a product or good or information include mail, hand delivery, air shipping, shipping by vessel, uploading to an internet site, or downloading from an internet site. Exports also include distribution of information sent as email, an email attachment, fax or in a telephone conversation. While restrictive business practices sometimes have a similar effect, they are not usually regarded as trade barriers. The most common foreign trade barriers are government-imposed measures and policies that restrict, prevent, or impede the international exchange of goods and services.
International agreements limit trade in and the transfer of, certain types of goods and information e. In dumping the producer sells the product at a price that returns no profit, or even amounts to a loss. The purpose and expected outcome of a tariff is to encourage spending on domestic goods and services rather than imports. Tariffs can create tension between countries. If that fails, the country may put a tariff of its own against the other nation in retaliation, and to increase pressure to remove the tariff.