A general-purpose punched card from the mid-twentieth century. Although ibm sterling 9.4 pdf documentation improvements controlled the patterns woven, they still required an assistant to operate the mechanism.
A number of punched cards were linked into a chain of any length. In 1932, the US government took both to court on this issue. IBM viewed its business as providing a service and that the cards were part of the machine. IBM could only set card specifications. By 1937 IBM had 32 presses at work in Endicott, N.
10 million punched cards every day. During WW II punched card equipment was used by the Allies in some of their efforts to decrypt Axis communications. England, 2,000,000 punched cards were used each week for storing decrypted German messages. Punched card technology developed into a powerful tool for business data-processing. By 1950 punched cards had become ubiquitous in industry and government.
IBM would by 1962 have no more than one-half of the punched card manufacturing capacity in the United States. 1965, a system marketed as a keypunch replacement which was somewhat successful. However, their influence lives on through many standard conventions and file formats. IBM used “IBM card” or, later, “punched card” at first mention in its documentation and thereafter simply “card” or “cards”. Specific formats were often indicated by the number of character positions available, e.
Sequential card columns allocated for a specific use, such as names, addresses, multi-digit numbers, etc. The Hollerith punched cards used for the US 1890 census were blank. Following that, cards commonly had printing such that the row and column position of a hole could be easily seen. Printing could include having fields named and marked by vertical lines, logos, and more. For applications requiring master cards to be separated from following detail cards, the respective cards had different upper corner diagonal cuts and thus could be separated by a sorter.
Other cards typically had one upper corner diagonal cut so that cards not oriented correctly, or cards with different corner cuts, could be identified. 1895, with 12 rows and 24 columns. I was traveling in the West and I had a ticket with what I think was called a punch photographthe conductorpunched out a description of the individual, as light hair, dark eyes, large nose, etc. So you see, I only made a punch photograph of each person. It featured an enlarged diagram of the card, indicating the positions of the holes to be punched. A printed reading board could be placed under a card that was to be read manually.
Hollerith envisioned a number of card sizes. The cards used in the 1890 census had round holes, 12 rows and 24 columns. A reading board for these cards can be seen at the Columbia University Computing History site. Hollerith’s original system used an ad-hoc coding system for each application, with groups of holes assigned specific meanings, e. This arrangement allowed a count up to 10,000.