Please forward this error screen to 96. Hydraulic fracturing began as an international relations and world politics 4th edition pdf in 1947, and the first commercially successful application followed in 1950.
Hydraulic fracturing is highly controversial in many countries. For these reasons, hydraulic fracturing is under international scrutiny, restricted in some countries, and banned altogether in others. The European Union is drafting regulations that would permit the controlled application of hydraulic fracturing. Fractures formed in this way are generally oriented in a plane perpendicular to the minimum principal stress, and for this reason, hydraulic fractures in well bores can be used to determine the orientation of stresses. In natural examples, such as dikes or vein-filled fractures, the orientations can be used to infer past states of stress. Also see a general review paper on the mechanics of fracking.