Letter from birmingham jail full text pdf and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and Philly. 5 9 0 14 6.
The home of over 5. Easily clip, save and share what you find with family and friends. Easily download and save what you find. This is a featured article. Click here for more information. Burnished Martin Luther King Jr. In the early 1960s, Birmingham was one of the most racially divided cities in the United States, both as enforced by law and culturally.
Black citizens faced legal and economic disparities, and violent retribution when they attempted to draw attention to their problems. Shuttlesworth meant to pressure business leaders to open employment to people of all races, and end segregation in public facilities, restaurants, schools, and stores. When local business and governmental leaders resisted the boycott, SCLC agreed to assist. When the campaign ran low on adult volunteers, James Bevel, SCLC’s Director of Direct Action, thought of the idea of having students become the main demonstrators in the Birmingham campaign. City Hall in order to talk to the mayor about segregation. King and the SCLC drew both criticism and praise for allowing children to participate and put themselves in harm’s way. Birmingham, Alabama was, in 1963, “probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States,” according to King.
Birmingham had no black police officers, firefighters, sales clerks in department stores, bus drivers, bank tellers, or store cashiers. Black secretaries could not work for white professionals. Birmingham’s steel mills, work in household service and yard maintenance, or work in black neighborhoods. The average income for blacks in the city was less than half that of whites.
Significantly lower pay scales for black workers at the local steel mills were common. Racial segregation of public and commercial facilities throughout Jefferson County was legally required, covered all aspects of life, and was rigidly enforced. Only 10 percent of the city’s black population was registered to vote in 1960. A neighborhood shared by white and black families experienced so many attacks that it was called “Dynamite Hill”. Black churches in which civil rights were discussed became specific targets for attack. Birmingham’s black population began to organize to effect change.