Mobile elements and the human genome nature reviews genetics pdf

Hybridogenesis in water frogs mobile elements and the human genome nature reviews genetics pdf. An image of the 46 chromosomes making up the diploid genome of a human male. A genome is all the genetic information of an organism.

For example, the human genome is analogous to the instructions stored in a cookbook. Just as a cookbook gives the instructions needed to make a range of meals including a holiday feast or a summer picnic, the human genome contains all the instructions needed to make the full range of human cell types including muscle cells or neurons. Hence, the book contains over 3. Within a species, the vast majority of nucleotides are identical between individuals, but sequencing multiple individuals is necessary to understand the genetic diversity.

European-led effort begun in the mid-1980s. 1996, again by The Institute for Genomic Research. The development of new technologies has made genome sequencing dramatically cheaper and easier, and the number of complete genome sequences is growing rapidly. Whereas a genome sequence lists the order of every DNA base in a genome, a genome map identifies the landmarks.

A genome map is less detailed than a genome sequence and aids in navigating around the genome. The genomes of RNA viruses can be either single-stranded or double-stranded RNA, and may contain one or more separate RNA molecules. DNA viruses can have either single-stranded or double-stranded genomes. Most DNA virus genomes are composed of a single, linear molecule of DNA, but some are made up of a circular DNA molecule. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes have DNA genomes. Archaea have a single circular chromosome.