Laws that prohibit, regulate, or tax cigarettes can generate illicit markets. Illicit trade in tobacco is pearson’s federal taxation 2017 pdf worldwide and in the United States.
Law enforcement against black markets can create additional harms such as violence. Most empirical studies associate increased enforcement with more violent crime. Tobacco control policy should account for the indirect social costs of regulation. Laws that prohibit, regulate, or tax cigarettes can generate illicit markets for tobacco products. Illicit markets both reduce the efficacy of policies intended to improve public health and create harms of their own.