The works of philo complete and unabridged pdf

The only event in Philo’s life that can be the works of philo complete and unabridged pdf dated is his participation in the embassy to Rome in 40 CE. Alexandrian Jewish and Greek communities.

Although the names of his parents are unknown, Philo came from a family which was noble, honourable and wealthy. Marcus died in 43 or 44. Jerusalem at least once in his lifetime. Philo along with his brothers received a thorough education.

Philo’s dates of birth and death are unknown but can be judged by Philo’s description of himself as “old” when he was part of the delegation to Gaius Caligula in AD 38. Jewish history professor Daniel R. Schwartz estimates his birth year as sometime between 20 and 10 BC. He relates that he was carrying a petition describing the sufferings of the Alexandrian Jews and asking the emperor to secure their rights. Philo gives a description of their sufferings, more detailed than Josephus’s, to characterize the Alexandrian Greeks as the aggresors in the civil strife that had left many Jews and Greeks dead. Philo describes the situation of the Jews in Egypt, writing that they numbered not less than a million and inhabited two of the five districts in Alexandria.

Jews when they refused to worship Caligula as a god. Daniel Schwartz surmises that given this tense background it may have been politically convenient for Philo to favor abstract monotheism instead of overt pro-Judeanism. Are you making war upon us, because you anticipate that we will not endure such indignity, but that we will fight on behalf of our laws, and die in defence of our national customs? For you cannot possibly have been ignorant of what was likely to result from your attempt to introduce these innovations respecting our temple. In his entire presentation, he implicitly supports the Jewish commitment to rebel against the emperor rather than allow such sacrilege to take place. Philo says he was regarded by his people as having unusual prudence, due to his age, education, and knowledge.

He says that Philo agreed to represent the Alexandrian Jews in regard to civil disorder that had developed between the Jews and the Greeks. According to Josephus, Philo and the larger Jewish community refused to treat the emperor as a god, to erect statues in honor of the emperor, and to build altars and temples to the emperor. Josephus says Philo believed that God actively supported this refusal. Roman empire built altars and temples to Gaius, and in other regards universally received him as they received the gods, these Jews alone thought it a dishonorable thing for them to erect statues in honor of him, as well as to swear by his name. Many of these severe things were said by Apion, by which he hoped to provoke Gaius to anger at the Jews, as he was likely to be.